Behavioural Theories and its Importance in Psychology

What are Behavioural Theories in Psychology?

Behavioural theories are the studies related to psychology branch and are also called as behaviourism. It is based upon the idea, that certain conditioning is always responsible for a certain behaviour in humans. The reason for the conditioning to occur inside the mind comes from distinct interactions in the surroundings. It helps to develop the course of certain actions in humans.

Regardless of the state a person mind has, behaviourism can steadily be studied in a systematic and observable manner. The study mostly focuses on the observable behaviours of a human action such as emotions, mood swings, cognitions etc. This topic has delivered many researches in psychology and such Psychology Essay writing help the researchers and budding learners in creating new experimental mindsets.

The father of behaviourism, Watson has once written in his classic paper that if a dozen healthy infants are provided to him with a surrounding based on his demands, he can raise them to be in different professions like lawyer, doctor engineers and even beggars and thieves regardless of their talents, genetic arrangement, abilities and tendencies.

Types of Conditioning

There are majorly two types of classified conditionings states.

  1. Classic conditioning: the attachment of the neutral stimulus with a naturally budding stimulus is done and observed in classic conditioning. The associated stimulus would be termed later as the conditioned stimulus. The behaviour that is rathe learned from it is called as conditioned response.
  2. Operant conditioning: It is also termed as instrumental conditioning and beholds the methods of learning that is induced by punishments and reinforcements. The case and effect or we can say, the behaviour and the consequences of it are associated through instrumental conditioning.

Importance of Behavioural Theories in Psychology

The major importance of behavioural theories in psychology gives an upper hand to the researchers. It helps them to conclude any behaviour and investigate it in a scientific manner. Although many philosophers like Freud, has established that including the subconscious mind is really important to account while studying behaviours.

It clearly measures the behaviour of a mind but it has severely failed many a times in addressing the biological as well as the cognitive processing to undertake human actions onto a new level as per study done by our psychology statistics case study assignment help expert team. Although the dominant force is diminishing but still it serves to be one of the most powerful tool to understand human psychology.

In many scenarios like how the learning buds inside the human minds and how they develop the languages they speak and write with fluency and efficiency; the conditioning studies have been actively utilized.

If we talk about the academic structure, the write ups and researches in the field of conditioning and behavioural psychology has produced many intellectual papers to study and develop theories. Students also take the help of cheap essay writing service online to know the deep understanding and expression of language in the terms of their write ups.

A human mind is built and made to establish standards and these standards are made to outbreak new ground-breaking assumptions and turning them to realities. A human mind is capable to doing and thinking unlimited possibilities to understand the existence.




Small Caselets Tax & Finance- Solutions Examples

Task 1

The analysis for Task 1 is given below:-

Bond Company Face Value (FV) Coupon Rate Annual Payment (PMT) Time-to Maturity (NPER) Yield-to-Maturity (RATE) Market Value (Quote) Discount, Premium, Par
‘A’-Rated 3M CO  $         1,000 3.875%  $      38.75                        20 3.421% $1,064.99 Premium
‘B’-Rated AAR CORP  $         1,000 7.250%  $      72.50                        10 4.592% $1,209.37 Premium
‘C’-Rated 99 CENTS ONLY STORES  $         1,000 11.000%  $    110.00                        10 6.700% 8.69% Premium


It shows that lower the rating greater will be the YTM due to increasing risks. The discount or premium is determined by YTM and coupon rate because if coupon rate is more than YTM then bond will be sold at premium or vice versa as per taxation homework help experts. As per my reading the YTM is going to increase with increase in maturity and vice versa which in turn decreases the bond market price.

Task 2

The return for three stocks on the basis of CAPM is given below:-

Company 5-year Risk-Free Rate of Return Beta (β) (Given) 5 Year Return on S&P 500 Required Return on Investment
Coca Cola 1.31%           0.73 15.9% 11.9%
Microsoft 1.31%           0.71 15.9% 11.6%
Exxon 1.31%           1.08 15.9% 17.0%


Now, the stock price on the basis of above calculation and current dividend is given below. It clearly determines whether the stock is currently traded at over or under price.

Company Current Dividend Projected Growth Rate (next year) Required Rate of Return (CAPM) Estimated Stock Price (Gordon Model) Current Stock Price Over/Under Priced
Coca Cola  $           1.22 9.00% 11.93%                   45.36                43.31 Under
Microsoft  $           1.24 9.00% 11.64%                   51.19                47.18 Under
Exxon  $           2.75 12.00% 17.02%                   61.31                90.89 Over


The third table calculates stock price one the basis of P/E ratio as given below:-

Company Estimated Earning (next year) P/E Ratio Estimated Stock Price (P/E) Current Stock Price Over/Under Priced
Coca Cola  $           1.96          24.80          48.61                   43.31 Under
Microsoft  $           1.75          24.80          43.40                   47.18 Over
Exxon  $           3.56          24.80          88.29                   90.89 Over


The entire analysis shows that the stock price is directly proportional to growth rate and dividend and inversely proportional to required rate of return as shown in the calculation from table 1 & table 2. The strength of Gordon model is that it calculates the stock price on the basis of net income but it misses the internal potential of the company.

On the other hand P/E ratio uses the earning potential with forward P/E to determine the stock price as calculated in third table as per analysis done by our case study homework help experts. The first model seems accurate as it is on the basis of current earning potential of the company and it also takes into account current risks through required rate of return of the company. The value of the stock will increase if growth rate, earning per share  and dividend increase whereas it will decrease with increase in required rate of return as per Gordon growth model since it depends directly on first three factors and inversely on the last factor.

Strategic Macro environment Analysis-Examples

Macro Economic Analysis


The Allphone management will have to think from different point of view as size of telecom business in Australia is huge with an estimated size of around 7.5 billion dollar and it is estimated that it will grow for next five years at rate more than 8-10% as per HSBC report. The Market is saturated with large no. of giant like Vodafone, Uninor etc. but still there is place for players who will serve great passion at economic rate.

The estimated industry revenue is $2 billion per year and it is also going to increase at same rate as mentioned above. Hence, the entire strategy of the Allphone should be made on the entire market prospect where forecasting of the sales will start from with new customers acquisitions as per findings by our statistics case study assignment help team. The whole business opportunity will be analyzed through macro analysis as given below:-

Technological Factors
Technology plays a very important role in developing many products in telecom industry. There are many advantages of the new technologies for both company and consumers and which are as follows:-

  • Now the costumers are more satisfied due to the instant and quick availability of the products.
  • With the help of these technologies, company can provide better and much personalized services.
  • And shopping is now more convenient for the costumers.


Legislative Factors


There are many legislations and policies of government by which the Company in this industry performance is directly affected. For example, an enforceable Code of Practice must be put up all the current practices must be banned such as asking for the payments from suppliers and the agreed prices are changed without any notice as per our legal case study homework help experts. A threat of severe wars in price of the products and strong necessities for the differentiation of products is created due to presence of many strong competitors with well-known brands. The policy of the government for monopoly can control and lessening the power of buyer can restrict this section’s entry through such controls like requirement of license and limitation or restriction is there to access the raw materials.


Economic Factors

Many economic factors affect demand, prices, supply and profits, so are of great importance. Highly unemployed population is one of them, which is not demanding for products, resulting in decreasing productivity. These factors depend largely on the factors exterior to the company; however they deviate the outcome and their performance.


Hence, the technological, legal and the economic factors will determine the future growth of the industry. As we already saw, the bad global economic conditions severely affected the international sales of the company.

Industry Analysis

The industry analysis presents the following facts for Walmart:-

  • This industry represents a significant portion of Australian GDP i.e. 7-8%
  • Cyclical stocks with great dividend opportunities
  • Highly leverd industry with greater opearting leverage

The huge capital, technical and leverage requirements make the industry Oligopolistic where few players are at Global and national level as per analysis and findings from business analytics assignment help experts. However, in local level one can find large no. of customized stores catering the needs of the customers.


Times Value of Money and How it affects investment in Superannuation Plan

In order to make the decision of the investment of the superannuation in a particular type of plan the time value of money plays a vital role in the decision making of such investment. The time value of money lays down the concept of the monetary growth of a particular sum of money invested for a certain period. The superannuation plans has certain factors that can decide the contributions. The contributions that are made in the regarding the superannuation has certain factors that determines in which plan the investment should be made. The portfolio of the investment determines the features of the investment and the plans and the policies of the particular type of the investments. As stated by Ramiah, Zhao and Moosa, (2014), the decisions taken by the manager in order to promote an investment may not be true in the real terms. It may be because of certain conditions

  • The market research conducted by our financial accounting homework help experts who manages the pension fund of the employee may not be linked with the actual situation of the economy. At times, there is instability in the economy, which makes this market research ineffective.
  •  At times there are certain government interventions regarding the operations of the economy. As stated by Shamsabadi et al.  (2017), the market research made by the pension manager of the company may suggest to adopt a particular scheme but the government may not encourage the people to adopt the schemes. In such cases, the government may suggest the policies of disinvestment in a particular scheme.
  • There may be at times when the government may adopt new schemes because the government has to make certain amount of expenditures on the population of the country, as it will have to incur a huge amount of expenses on the people affected by the natural calamities. As suggested by our exam help online team, in such a case the market research of the pension manager will be advantageous to the company and its employees but the government will have to increase the revenue. It makes the people invest in the schemes launched by the government. In such a case, the market research is not valid.

The tertiary sector employees need to adopt the policy to invest in a particular scheme. The scheme that is more advantageous needs to be adopted. There are different types of schemes that have been discussed. Besides, it can be concluded that the time value of money influences the decision-making in a particular type of scheme. In order t select a scheme a proper market research needs to be done by the manager but sometimes it may not be true.

Congruities in Strategic Management and Implementation Policies in Aviation


The pursuit of innovation.Drucker (2014) describes innovation as part of the strategic drivers of product enhancement. The practice of invention creates new and unique products that are customized to suit customer tastes and preferences. The arousal factor of new products triggers clients’ attempts to establish new experiences. Through innovative interventions, the Airbus and the Boeing Companies have been in a position to design products that attract the preference of both local and international markets. The technical departments in the firms endeavor to further their respective production lines with world-class brands. For instance, in 1937, the Boeing Company introduced the first ever commercial airliner with a pressurized cabin. The Model 307 Stratolinercould give the customers a new flying experience through improved pressure balance for comfort and unique ability to cruise at 20,000 feet as per our strategic management assignment help experts. According to Russo (2016), the height was far much above the zone of turbulent weather. In the 1960s, the company advanced into the manufacture of the hydrofoils that led to the assembly of the globally admired USS Tucumcari (PGH-2). Thirty-four years later, the Boeing 777 hit the market with a carrying capacity of 370 passengers. On the other extreme, Airbus designed the A300b carrier that was smaller in size and economical than the US models. This was succeeded by the A380 that had an ultra-high carrying capacity(Avdzhieva, Manhart, Krupp, Brackmann, Mathews, Kamperis, & Nigam, 2014). The firms maintain the modern technological applications to manufacturer sophisticated commercial airlines and private jets that in customer loyalty.

Compliance with political and legal requirements. The volatile nature of the aviation industry justifies the presence of administrative and legal regulations. Boeing and Airbus firms are multinational and hence are subjected to both local and foreign political and legal regulations. Boeing has historically been compliant to regulations. For instance, in 1934, the US federal government responded to the unhealthy competition in the aviation industry. The administration sought to discourage the situation by demanding companies to break monopoly (Simons, 2014). Boeing responded to the regulations by segmenting its structural constitution into subsidiaries. The compliance expanded the operability of the Boeing that facilitated the design and assembly of the Boeing 314 Clipper and Model 307 Stratoliner. Similarly, the Airbus responded to the French government’s call for cross-border integration by partnering with Germany and the United Kingdom. The heed to the political intervention led to the capture of a significant share of the European market (Mayer, 2013).

Calculated risk taking. Investment and risk-takingare part of the wide array of managerial roles that lie within the jurisdiction of the management.It is a success factor that allows companies to invest in highly risky ventures that promise good returns. In an endeavor to curb the risk, companies venture in uncertain practices in order to create competitive products. The Boeing and Airbus aerospace manufacturers have been engaging in mergers and collaborations with other air travel services with the aim of gaining international recognition as per our marketing assignment help experts. For example, the Boeing has engaged in several partners while Airbus’ most recognizable collaboration was between the company and Germany and the United Kingdom (Simons, 2014).Moreover, the company has engaged in trade deals with foreign governments in order to penetrate their local markets.However risky the plans have been, the firms have gained economically from the ventures.

Sociology and Nursing – Five Ways to secure better mark

People have realised the need for sociology and it is widely accepted in fields like product marketing, non-profit organizations, administrative departments, political campaigns etc. It is a very important topic for the students as well. Sociology Assignment Help shall provide the detailed information about this. It ensures a better understanding of the mankind and improvises the skillset of the student. It develops a sense of rational thinking, further, increasing the interest of fairness in the environment. All these lead to high level of satisfaction in the students. Now, besides this sociology can be a tricky subject. To get a good score, one must have critical and analytical thinking, creative writing ability, self-awareness and cultural competence. The answer must be extensively based on the view of thinkers, related case studies, and opinions of sociologists. It must flow naturally from point to point with the help of references.


Nursing is an inevitable part of the healthcare sector. It is the practice of taking care of the sick patients. It is based on treating the individuals, families, and communities to help them maintain or recover optimal health. Nursing includes activities like the preparation of a care plan, assisting the physicians, providing support and taking care of the patient’s family. Nurse education is the academic course that consists of theoretical and practical training. It involves all the topics that are required by the nurses during their career. This course covers a vast syllabus as the nurses need to treat every patient differently according to their needs and they must be well-prepared for every situation. This education is mentored by experienced nurses and medical professionals who are qualified for such educational tasks. Nursing Assignment Case Study Help is an amazing platform that acknowledges us on the fact that nursing may not focus directly on medical procedures but still, nurses are considered to be the most trustworthy healthcare professionals. Nurses need to always stay with the patients they are looking after. This can be a difficult task but nurses are trained for such challenges during their training period by their mentors. Students preparing to join nursing must have good practical knowledge and skills to score decent marks in the coursework assessments. They must have knowledge of the previous case studies for the better understanding of situations. Along with all these, they must discuss their queries and doubts with their teachers. This will lead to a better understanding of the topic and students can pass with flying colours.

Tricks to secure better grades in Accounting

Accounting is basically a process of keeping the records that are related to the business in a very organised and systematic manner. This is done in order to maintain a record and to show these whenever required to the tax collecting organisations and oversight agencies. Accounting is one of the major pre-requisites of any business. To carry out a business, accounting must be done to track the record of all the transactions that are being carried out. It is basically a summary and analysis of the business carried out by an organisation in a stipulated period of time. A large variety of advantages can be derived from accounting. Out of which, some are mentioned below in Accounting Homework Helpers. They are: –

  • Determination of selling price: – A lot of decisions are taken by the management with respect to accounting. Decisions regarding the determination of selling price, the increase of sales, reducing costs etc. are done with the help of accounting. Hence, accounting is an important subject for students pursuing management degree.
  • Complete and systematic record: – It is a complete organised and systematic way of keeping a record of the business transactions. This can be used later on to analyse these transactions.
  • Helps in raising loans: – For a business to expand, it needs more capital and sometimes due to insufficient funds, the management need to take a loan from a bank. Now, the bank will lend money to the management on the basis of their stability and profitability which can be measured with the help of accounting.

Financial accounting is a branch of accounting that keeps the record of all the financial transactions a company. All of these transactions are summarised, analysed, recorded and then presented in the form of a financial report such as balance sheet or income statement. Various financial statements are enlisted in Financial Accounting Homework Help. Financial statements are issued by the company on a regular basis and these are generally given to the people outside of the company such as owners, stockholders and lenders. Financial accounting can be used to measure the value of the company on the grounds of financial transactions. There are various financial statements. Some of them are: –

  • Income statement: – The income statement is a financial report which presents us with all the figures regarding the profitability of the organisation during a specific period of time. This specific period of time is chosen by the company itself and this can be one week, one month or even one year.
  • Balance sheet: – The balance sheet consists of three basic components such as assets, liabilities and the stockholder’s equity which is related to a specific date.
  • Statement of cash flows: – The statement of cash flows represents the change in a company’s cash during a certain interval of time.
  • Statement of stockholder’s equity: – This statement basically indicates the change in the stockholder’s equity for the same amount of time interval as the income statement and the balance sheet.